航空公司绩效评估是确定航空公司发展进程的重要手段，随着竞争的加剧和产业的发展，绩效指标在航空公司的决策、预测和经营管理中发挥着重要的作用。安德鲁·博斯先生的做法是大致了解业绩因素。在我的报告中，我将以一种井然有序的方式对业绩进行分类，以便更好地理解。Forsyth，Hill and Trengove（1986）提出效率是指单个航空公司以最少的投入产生尽可能大的产出的能力。Etherington和Var（1984）解释说，商务和非商务旅行者分析必须分开进行，因为两者都有不同的要求和先决条件。
根据美国交通部交通统计局（Bureau of Transportation Statistics）的数据，确定需要测量的是最重要的；以下是三个主要的绩效因素：
Measuring Airline Performance
Airline performance measurement is very vital in identifying the progress of the airline, due to increasing competition and growing industry, the performance indicators play very important role in decision making, forecasting, and management operations. The approach of the Mr. Andrew Boss was to give an idea of the performance factors in general. In my report I will classify the performance in a well arranged manner for better understanding. Forsyth, Hill and Trengove (1986) proposed that efficiency is the ability of individual airline to produce the greatest possible output with the least possible input. Etherington, and Var (1984) explained that business and non-business travelers analysis must be separately done as both have different requirements and prerequisites.
Identifying what is needed to be measured is most important, according to United States Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics; the following are the three main performance factors:
• Financial Measurement
• Employment and Traffic Measurement
• Operating Expenses Measurement
These are the measures that give the financial aspects of the airline performance, an airline not fulfilling the financial goals is not going to last long, and these are often considered as primary performance measures. These indicators are further divided into four sub measures as given below:
a) System Operating Profit/(Loss) per Originating Passenger: Shows profit or loss per passenger
b) System Operating Expenses (excluding Regional Jet Contract) per Originating Passenger: it measures how much each airline spends in relation to the originating passengers it carries. All expenses necessary to operate an airline excluding contracted expenses relating to regional jet activity are included in this measurement.
c) System Operating Expenses (excluding Regional Jet Contract) per Aircraft: This measure spreads the total expenses to operate an airline over each of the carrier’s individual operating aircraft excluding non-mainline Regional Jet contract expenses.
d) Passenger Revenue per Originating Passenger (excluding Regional Jet Contract Revenue): it measures the average amount of revenue received by the airline for each originating passenger.
Some examples of these factors are given below:
In year 2007, America West was the leading airline in low cost carrier with over $15 per passenger profit while ATA was in maximum loss of $66.35 per passenger. Similarly ATA had the highest expenses per passenger at around $459 while Southwest was operating at the lowest cost of $104 per passenger.
Employment and Traffic Measures
These indicators are essential in measuring the traffic density (passenger per certain time) and employment turnovers and the mix of the two. These are the secondary measures to evaluate the popularity and market penetration of the airline. The greater the Traffic density of an airline is the more passengers it is taking hence occupying more market share. There are a total of four measures in this category given below:
a) Full-Time Equivalent Employees (FTEs) per Aircraft: Employees per aircraft provide one measure of an airline’s efficiency with respect to the average number of all its employees per unit of production. The smaller the number of employees per aircraft indicates greater efficiency
b) Average monthly Available Seat-Miles (ASMs) per Full-Time Equivalent Employee (FTE): ASMs (one aircraft seat flown one mile) are the basic unit of production in the airline industry. This measure is the simplest gauge of FTE productivity.
c) Average Monthly Revenue Aircraft Minutes per Full-Time Equivalent Employee (FTE): The most neutral common denominator in evaluating production performance is revenue aircraft minutes per employee. Irrespective of an airline’s business model (long haul or short haul routes) or type of aircraft it utilizes, flight time is what the aircraft were designed to do.
d) Average Monthly Originating Passengers per Full-Time Equivalent Employee (FTE): It is a basic measure reviewing how many unique passengers are transported compared to the size of the airline’s workforce.
These indicators are the performance indicators of the airline’s traffic and employment. A stable airline would have good values for these indicators. Like for example, in year 2007 Northwest and United reduced FTEs per aircraft by 22 percent and in the same year the low-cost carriers generated 166 originating passengers per FTE employee compared to 69 passengers per FTE for the network airlines.